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What Are Varicoceles?

Varicoceles are a common condition affecting the veins within the scrotum. They occur when the veins that drain blood from the testicles become enlarged or dilated, leading to a variety of symptoms and potential complications.

Causes of Varicoceles

It is believed that varicoceles develop when the valves within the veins that regulate blood flow fail to function properly. This causes blood to pool within the veins, leading to enlargement. While the exact cause of varicoceles is not fully understood, several factors may contribute to their development:

  • Abnormal valve function: Malfunctioning valves can impede blood flow and result in varicocele formation.
  • Genetic predisposition: Certain individuals may have an inherited predisposition to developing varicoceles.
  • Increased blood flow: Factors that increase blood flow to the testicles, such as physical exertion or prolonged standing, can contribute to varicocele development.

Symptoms of Varicoceles

Varicoceles often present with minimal or no symptoms and may only be discovered during routine physical examinations or infertility evaluations. Varicoceles are a common cause of male infertility, as they can interfere with sperm production or function. However, some individuals may experience the following symptoms:

  • Dull pain or discomfort: Aching or heaviness in the scrotum, particularly after physical activity or prolonged standing.
  • Visible enlargement: A varicocele may be visible or palpable as a lump or mass within the scrotum.
  • Testicular atrophy: In rare cases, varicoceles can cause the testicles to shrink or atrophy over time, potentially affecting testosterone production and fertility.

Diagnosis of Varicoceles

To diagnose varicoceles, a urologist will typically perform a physical examination, which may include:

  • Visual inspection: The urologist may examine the scrotum for signs of swelling or enlargement.
  • Palpation: The urologist will gently feel the scrotum to detect the presence of dilated veins or abnormal masses.
  • Additional tests: In some cases, imaging tests, such as a scrotal ultrasound, may be recommended to confirm the diagnosis or assess the severity of the varicocele.

Treatment Options

The treatments for varicoceles depend on various factors, including the severity of symptoms, the impact on fertility, and the patient's overall health. Here are the commonly used treatment options:


If the varicocele is small and not causing significant symptoms or fertility issues, the urologist may recommend a conservative approach of regular monitoring without immediate intervention. Regular follow-up visits are required to monitor any changes in symptoms or the progression of the varicocele. This approach is often considered for adolescents or individuals with minimal discomfort.

Surgical Repair

Surgical repair, known as varicocelectomy, is a common treatment option for varicoceles. The surgery aims to ligate (tie off) or remove the affected veins, redirecting blood flow to healthier veins and reducing the pooling of blood in the scrotum. There are three different surgical techniques available:

  1. Open surgery: This traditional approach involves making an incision in the lower abdomen or groin area to access and repair the varicocele. The surgeon identifies and ligates the affected veins, usually using sutures. Open surgery allows direct visualization of the varicocele and is often preferred for complex cases.
  2. Laparoscopic surgery: Laparoscopic varicocelectomy is a minimally invasive procedure that involves making small incisions in the abdomen. The surgeon inserts a laparoscope (a thin, flexible tube with a camera) and small surgical instruments to locate and ligate the affected veins. Laparoscopic surgery offers the advantages of smaller incisions, reduced postoperative pain, and a faster recovery time compared to open surgery.
  3. Percutaneous embolization: In this minimally invasive procedure, a radiologist inserts a thin catheter through a small incision, usually in the groin or neck, and guides it to the varicocele using imaging techniques such as fluoroscopy. Small coils or a sclerosing agent (a substance that causes scarring and closure of the veins) are then used to block or close off the affected veins. Embolization is an effective alternative for individuals who may not be suitable candidates for surgery or prefer a less invasive option.

Assisted Reproductive Techniques

In cases where varicoceles are associated with male infertility, or if other fertility issues coexist, assisted reproductive techniques can be considered alongside or instead of varicocele repair. These techniques aim to bypass or augment natural conception by assisting with sperm retrieval, sperm quality enhancement, or fertilization procedures. Some of the commonly used techniques include intrauterine insemination (IUI), in vitro fertilization (IVF), or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI)

When To See a Doctor for Varicoceles

While often asymptomatic, varicoceles can cause discomfort and fertility issues in some men. Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment can help manage symptoms and improve fertility outcomes. If you suspect you have a varicocele or are struggling to conceive, it’s time to see a urologist for evaluation and treatment.

Urology Center Of Iowa
Clinic Locations

Main Office



12129 University Ave, Clive, IA 50325

Broadlawns Office
Knoxville Hospital
Ringgold County Hospital Mt Ayr
Greene County Medical Center
Decatur County Hospital
Pella Regional Hospital
Adair County Health System

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