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Urinary Tract Infection
Urinary Tract Infection

What Is a Urinary Tract Infection?

Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are bacterial infections of the urinary system, which includes the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra. UTIs are more common in women, with approximately 50-60% experiencing at least one UTI in their lifetime.

Causes of Urinary Tract Infections

UTIs are primarily caused by bacteria, with Escherichia coli (E. coli) being the most common pathogen. E. coli typically lives in the intestines but can enter the urethra and travel up to the bladder, causing infection. Other bacteria, such as Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Proteus mirabilis, and Klebsiella pneumoniae, can also cause UTIs, although less frequently.

Several factors can increase the risk of developing a UTI:

  • Female anatomy: Women have a shorter urethra than men, which makes it easier for bacteria to travel to the bladder.
  • Sexual activity: Intercourse can introduce bacteria into the urethra, increasing the risk of infection.
  • Urinary tract abnormalities: Congenital abnormalities (abnormalities you’re born with) or obstructions in the urinary tract may cause urine to pool where it shouldn’t, providing a breeding ground for bacteria.
  • Weakened immune system: Conditions that impair the immune system, such as diabetes, increase the risk of UTIs.
  • Urinary catheter use: Long-term use of a urinary catheter can introduce bacteria into the urinary tract.
  • Menopause: Reduced estrogen levels can lead to changes in the urinary tract, making it more susceptible to infection.

Symptoms of Urinary Tract Infections

The symptoms of a UTI can vary depending on the part of the urinary tract affected. A lower urinary tract infection (cystitis) affects the bladder, while an upper urinary tract infection (pyelonephritis) involves the kidneys. Common symptoms of a lower UTI include:

  • A strong, persistent urge to urinate
  • A burning sensation during urination
  • Passing small amounts of urine frequently 
  • Cloudy, dark, bloody, or strong-smelling urine
  • Pain or pressure in the lower abdomen
  • Feeling tired or shaky
  • Low-grade fever (less common)

If the infection spreads to the kidneys (pyelonephritis), additional symptoms may include:

  • High fever
  • Chills
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Upper back and side pain

Diagnosis and Treatment of Urinary Tract Infections

UTIs are diagnosed with a urinalysis. This is when a urine sample is collected and sent to a laboratory for analysis. The presence of bacteria, white blood cells, and red blood cells in the urine can confirm a UTI. If bacteria are present, a culture may be done to identify the type of bacteria and what antibiotics are most effective against it. Further tests, such as an ultrasound, CT scan, or cystoscopy, may be needed to look for other conditions or identify abnormalities in the urinary tract.

UTIs are usually treated with antibiotics to target the specific bacteria causing the infection. The choice of antibiotic and treatment duration depends on the infection's severity and the patient's overall health. If you are prescribed an antibiotic, completing the prescribed course is essential to prevent the infection from recurring or the bacteria from developing resistance. Over-the-counter pain relievers may also help to relieve discomfort.

Prevention of Urinary Tract Infections

Preventive measures can help reduce the risk of UTIs. These include:

  • Maintain proper hygiene: Clean the genital area gently with mild soap and water, and always wipe from front to back after using the toilet to prevent the spread of bacteria from the anus to the urethra.
  • Stay hydrated: Drinking plenty of water helps to flush bacteria out of the urinary tract, reducing the risk of infection.
  • Urinate frequently: Avoid holding in urine for extended periods, as this can allow bacteria to multiply in the bladder.
  • Urinate after sexual activity: Urinating after intercourse helps to flush out any bacteria that may have been introduced during sex.
  • Choose appropriate birth control: Diaphragms and spermicides can increase the risk of UTIs. Consider discussing alternative contraceptive options with your healthcare provider.
  • Wear breathable clothing: Opt for loose-fitting, cotton underwear to allow air circulation and prevent a moist environment that promotes bacterial growth.
  • Avoid irritants: Harsh soaps, bubble baths, and feminine hygiene sprays can irritate the urethra, increasing the risk of infection.
  • Take vitamin C: Consuming vitamin C-rich foods or supplements can help acidify the urine, inhibiting bacterial growth.
  • Consider hormone replacement therapy (post-menopausal women): Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) with estrogen may help to strengthen the urinary tract and reduce the risk of recurrent UTIs in postmenopausal women. 
  • Add cranberries to your diet: Cranberries may help prevent UTIs, though the evidence is mixed. Consuming cranberry juice regularly or taking cranberry supplements may decrease your risk of developing UTIs. 

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