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Testicular cancer
Testicular Cancer

What Is Testicular Cancer?

Testicular cancer is cancer that develops in one or both testicles. Cancer happens when there is an abnormal and uncontrolled growth of cells — in this case, in the testicle(s). Although rare, testicular cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer among males aged 15 to 35.

Testicular cancers are categorized based on their cellular origin and structure:

  • Germ Cell Tumors: These constitute the vast majority of testicular cancers. Germ cells are the cells responsible for producing sperm. Germ cell tumors are further subdivided into:
    • Seminomas: These grow relatively slowly and are responsive to radiation therapy. Seminomas can occur at any age, but they tend to affect men in their 30s and 40s.
    • Nonseminomas: These usually grow and spread more quickly than seminomas. Nonseminomas comprise several cell types, including embryonal carcinoma, yolk sac carcinoma, choriocarcinoma, and teratoma.
  • Stromal Tumors: Stromal tumors are less common and come from the supportive and hormone-producing tissues of the testicles. There are two main types of stromal tumors:
    • Leydig Cell Tumors: These tumors arise from the Leydig cells that produce male sex hormones.
    • Sertoli Cell Tumors: These originate from Sertoli cells which help in the maturation of sperm cells.

Risk Factors for Testicular Cancer

Certain risk factors can increase the likelihood of developing this type of cancer. However, the presence of one or more of these factors does not guarantee that an individual will develop testicular cancer, and many individuals diagnosed with this disease have no identifiable risk factors.

  • Cryptorchidism: This condition, also known as undescended testicles, is a primary risk factor for testicular cancer. It occurs when one or both of the testes fail to descend from the abdomen, where they are located during fetal development, into the scrotum before birth.
  • Personal or Family History of Testicular Cancer: Men who have previously been diagnosed with testicular cancer are at an increased risk of developing a tumor in the other testicle. Also, a family history of testicular cancer can slightly raise the risk of developing cancer.
  • Age and Race: While testicular cancer can occur at any age, it is most common in young and middle-aged men. Also, this disease is more prevalent in white men than in men of other races.
  • Genetic Conditions: Certain genetic conditions, such as Klinefelter syndrome, can increase the risk of testicular cancer. Klinefelter syndrome is a condition resulting from being born with an extra X chromosome.
  • Abnormal Testicular Development: Conditions that cause testicles to develop abnormally, such as some intersex conditions, can increase the risk of testicular cancer.

Symptoms of Testicular Cancer

Testicular cancer can present with a variety of symptoms. Often, the symptoms are subtle and can be easily overlooked or attributed to other, less serious conditions. However, the persistent presence of any of the following symptoms should prompt a visit to a physician:

  • Testicular Lump or Swelling: One of the first signs of testicular cancer is often a lump or swelling in one of the testicles. The lump may or may not be painful. Even without a lump, any enlargement of the testicles should be evaluated by a healthcare professional.
  • Scrotal Discomfort or Pain: While pain is not a common symptom of testicular cancer, some individuals may experience discomfort, a heavy sensation, or pain in the scrotum or testicles. 
  • Ache in the Lower Abdomen or Groin: An unexplained, persistent ache in the lower abdomen or groin area may be a sign of testicular cancer.
  • Fluid Accumulation in the Scrotum: Sudden accumulation of fluid in the scrotum, known as a hydrocele, can sometimes be associated with testicular cancer.
  • Breast Tenderness or Growth: In some cases of testicular cancer, the production of hormones can be affected, which may lead to symptoms such as breast tenderness or growth of breast tissue, a condition known as gynecomastia.
  • Back Pain: If the testicular cancer has spread to the lymph nodes along the back, back pain may be experienced.
  • Generalized Symptoms: More general symptoms can include fatigue, weight loss, or unexplained fever. These are more common if the cancer has spread to other parts of the body.

Early detection greatly improves the chance of successful treatment. Any changes in the testicles should be promptly evaluated by a healthcare professional, even if the changes do not cause pain or discomfort.

Diagnosing Testicular Cancer

The process of diagnosing testicular cancer involves several steps designed to assess physical symptoms and verify the presence and extent of the disease. This typically starts with a thorough physical examination and patient history, but a range of other tests may be utilized to confirm a diagnosis. 

  • Physical Examination and Patient History: This initial step allows the healthcare provider to assess any physical symptoms, such as a lump or swelling in the testicle. The patient's personal and family medical history is also taken into account to determine potential risk factors.
  • Ultrasound:  If a physical examination indicates the possibility of testicular cancer, an ultrasound is often the next step. This imaging test uses high-frequency sound waves to produce detailed images of the testicles and can help distinguish between a solid mass, which might be cancer, and a fluid-filled cyst, which is usually benign.
  • Blood Tests: Certain substances, known as tumor markers, may be elevated in the blood of individuals with testicular cancer. Blood tests can be used to measure the levels of these tumor markers, which include alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), beta human chorionic gonadotropin (β-HCG), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). However, not all testicular cancers cause elevated levels of these markers.
  • Inguinal Orchiectomy: If the results of the physical exam, ultrasound, and blood tests strongly suggest testicular cancer, surgical removal of the affected testicle through the groin — a procedure known as an inguinal orchiectomy — is performed. The removed tissue is then examined under a microscope to confirm the diagnosis of cancer and identify the type and stage of the disease. Unlike other types of cancers, a biopsy is typically avoided, as doing so can make the cancer cells spread to the scrotum. 
  • Additional Imaging Tests: If testicular cancer is confirmed, additional imaging tests may be performed to determine if, and how far, the cancer has spread. This may include a computed tomography (CT) scan, a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan, or a positron emission tomography (PET) scan.

Treatment Options

The treatment plan for testicular cancer is determined by several factors, including the type and stage of the cancer, the patient's overall health, and their personal preferences. Often, a team of healthcare professionals, including urologists, oncologists, and radiation oncologists, work with the patient to determine the most effective treatment strategy, including:

  • Surgery: Surgical removal of the affected testicle, known as a radical inguinal orchiectomy, is usually the first step in both diagnosing and treating nearly all stages and types of testicular cancer. This procedure involves making an incision in the groin and extracting the entire testicle through the opening. 
  • Radiation Therapy: Radiation therapy uses high-energy X-rays or other types of radiation to kill cancer cells or stop them from growing. This therapy is particularly effective against seminomas, a type of testicular cancer susceptible to radiation.
  • Chemotherapy: Chemotherapy involves the use of drugs to destroy cancer cells, usually by stopping the cells' ability to grow and divide. It can be administered before surgery to shrink tumors or after surgery to kill any remaining cancer cells.
  • High-Dose Chemotherapy and Stem Cell Transplant:  In cases where testicular cancer has recurred or is resistant to treatment, high-dose chemotherapy followed by a stem cell transplant might be an option. The high doses of chemotherapy drugs kill cancer cells but also damage healthy bone marrow cells. A stem cell transplant helps to replenish the bone marrow.
  • Surveillance:  For some men with early-stage testicular cancer, surveillance may be an option after surgery. This involves no immediate treatment but requires frequent check-ups that include medical history, physical exams, blood tests, and imaging tests to detect any recurrence at an early stage.
  • Targeted Therapy: This newer type of cancer treatment uses drugs to target specific parts of cancer cells, making the treatment more effective and less harmful to healthy cells. As of the last knowledge cutoff in 2021, targeted therapies were still being studied in clinical trials for testicular cancer.

Prognosis and Prevention

The prognosis for men with testicular cancer is generally good since it’s one of the most treatable forms of cancer. Factors that influence prognosis include the type and stage of the cancer, the levels of tumor markers after surgery, and the patient's overall health.


Prognosis: Testicular cancer has a high cure rate, particularly if detected and treated early. The five-year survival rate for localized testicular cancer (cancer that has not spread beyond the testicle) is nearly 100%. Even when the cancer has spread to nearby lymph nodes or distant organs, the five-year survival rate remains high, exceeding 95% and 73%, respectively.

Follow-up Care: After treatment, regular follow-up visits are critical. These visits may include physical examinations, blood tests, and imaging tests to monitor for possible recurrence and to manage any long-term side effects of treatment. These follow-up visits typically occur every few months for the first few years after treatment but gradually become less frequent over time.

In terms of prevention, there isn’t anything that can completely prevent testicular cancer. However, several measures can help with early detection:

  • Testicular Self-Exams: Regular self-examinations of the testicles can help men become familiar with their testicles' normal size and weight, making it easier to notice any changes. While this method has not definitively been shown to reduce the risk of dying from testicular cancer, it can help in identifying changes in anatomy, leading to earlier treatment.
  • Medical Check-Ups: Regular medical check-ups provide opportunities for healthcare professionals to detect any signs of testicular cancer. This is particularly important for individuals with known risk factors such as a history of undescended testicles or a family history of testicular cancer.
  • Healthy Lifestyle: While not specific to testicular cancer, maintaining a healthy lifestyle, including regular exercise, a balanced diet, and avoiding tobacco and excessive alcohol, can contribute to overall well-being and a robust immune system.

Understanding testicular cancer, including its risk factors, symptoms, and the importance of early detection, is crucial to men's health education. As always, consulting with healthcare professionals for individual health concerns and more personalized advice is essential.

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